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Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. It was originally created in by Thomas and John Knoll.
Since then, the software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole. The software’s name is often colloquially used as a verb e.
In addition to raster graphics, Photoshop has limited abilities to edit or render text and vector graphics especially through clipping path for the latter , as well as 3D graphics and video. Its feature set can be expanded by plug-ins ; programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that run inside it and offer new or enhanced features. Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers.
However, in October following the introduction of Creative Suite branding , each new version of Photoshop was designated with ” CS ” plus a number; e. With the introduction of the Creative Cloud branding in June and in turn, the change of the ” CS ” suffix to ” CC ” , Photoshop’s licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service subscription model. As of November , Adobe has also released a full version of Photoshop for the iPad , and while initially limited, Adobe plans to bring more features to Photoshop for iPad.
Photoshop was developed in by two brothers Thomas and John Knoll , who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in Thomas Knoll, a Ph. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken. During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe.
Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September Photoshop 1. The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1. The list price of Photoshop 1. Photoshop was initially only available on Macintosh. The Windows port led to Photoshop reaching a wider mass market audience as Microsoft ‘s global reach expanded within the next few years.
Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD , which stands for ” P hoto s hop D ocument”. This is in contrast to many other file formats e. JPG or. GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes. These formats are required to use the file in publications or on the web.
Photoshop can also create and use files with the extension. PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” also known as “large document format”.
The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing.
Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software.
Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation. The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf plugins , available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:.
Adobe Camera Raw also known as ACR and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resulting images can be processed by Photoshop. Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen.
These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching. These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. In some newer versions hovering along the tools gives a small Video glimpse of the tool. Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.
The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush. The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer.
The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image. Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines. These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc.
In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants. The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use. Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations.
The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section.
This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. The crop tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document. By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area.
Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped. The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased.
The slice and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied.
The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are a single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical. This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control.
In contrast to the crop tool, the marquee tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping. The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line. The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option.
Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as “marching ants”. To set a specific size or ratio, the tool options bar provides these settings. Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height. Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc. To crop the selection, the user must go to the image tab and select crop.
The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand. The regular lasso tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The “marching ants” will indicate if a selection has been made. The polygonal lasso tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines.
Unlike the regular lasso tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape. To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool. Magnetic lasso tool are considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point.
It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor moves over the desired area. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the “marching ants” once the selection has been closed.
The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool. The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over.
By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image. The “marching ants” allow the user to know what is currently being selected. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection.
The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values.